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news details
Jammu and Kashmir little known facts 1947-Pakistan invasion
(Border incidents before invasion)
Y.R.Gupta9/13/2018 10:38:57 PM
On 15 August 1947, The independent 'dominions' of India and Pakistan were born and Paramountancy of the British crown over the Princely States in the Sub-continents ended. The govt. of India soon declared that it considered the states free only to join India or Pakistan and not to remain Independent.
The Maharaja of J&K decided to postpone its decision on the problem of accession due to certain compelling circumstances and to have a stand still agreement with both India and Pakistan. As such an offer was made in identical terms to both the countries. The same was accepted by Pakistan and formal agreement was signed.
The stand still agreement by the Maharaja with Pakistan gave a sigh of relief to Pakistan Leadership as they thought that the state would fall into the lap of their country (Pakistan) in due course.
However, their hopes vanished when the Maharaja's govt. protested to the Pakistan govt. against the hoisting of Pakistan flag on Post offices in the state which Pakistan thought had come under its control according to the stand still agreement, because J&K state was included in Sialkot (Pakistan) circle in Undivided India. The Maharaja's govt. further requested the Govt. of India to take charge of the Post and telegraph administration in the state. This act of Maharaja clearly indicates his bent of mind towards Indian union.
The Pakistan suffering humiliation on this account decided to take further steps to build more pressure on the Maharaja to compel him to join Pakistan. The main steps initiated/took in this regard includes "Economic Blockade (ignoring stand still agreement), stepping up propaganda among the Muslim Population and officials of the State to prepare them for a rising from within and organizing regular raids at different points in the state both in Jammu and Kashmir regions and in the mean time also prepare for the direct assault at the opportune movement.
To give practical shape to these acts The Pakistan Govt. stopped the movement of all good's including the most essential items to the state as the state was fully dependent on the markets of Sialkot and Rawalpindi for the supply of all these goods. The rail link with Jammu from Sialkot was also cut-off. Simultaneously the raids as planned also started from September 3, 1947 and continued till October 22, when full scale invasion of the state was launched. The Border was pierced on several points every-day during this period.
The following Border incidents were reported to the Govt. of India by the J&K Govt. but unfortunately the Govt. of India still failedto foresee Pakistan's intentions.
September 3, 1947- At Kotha, 17 miles south- east of Jammu, armedraiders chased refugees and indulged in loot and murder. The raiders retreated into Pakistan territory when the Kashmir State garrison reached the scene. Another band of 300 raiders waylaid and murdered a Hindu refugee and his wife and abducted their two daughters near the village of Rajpura, ten miles south of Samba, and lasted attacked the village. A group of Pakistan nationals attacked Dohali on Jammu-Pakistan border and indulged in cattle-lifting. Yet another group numbering about 500, armed with service rifles chased refugees and attacked state petrol reservoir at Chak Haria, 6 miles south of Samba.
September 4, 1947- Armed gangs of 200 to 300 raiders from tehsils Kahuta and Murree, crossing the Jhelum River in Panjar area, seven miles north and south of owe ferry, raided state territory and looted and murdered the people.
September 5, 1947- Armed band of raiders roamed about defying law in the area west of Punch.
September 6, 1947- Increased activities of Pakistan troops on the main roads. A Pakistan petrol visited Alibeg, twelve miles west of Bhimber.
September 7, 1947- A Pakistan mob collected on the Border, south of Manawar and shri, and staged demonstrations but did not cross the border.
September 9, 1947- A convoy of Kashmir state subjects escorted by Pakistani troops and coming from Rawalpindi was expected at Kohala. It failed to arrive. Later on, information was available to show that the convoy had been massacred en route to Kohala .
September 12, 1947- The post office at Mirpur refused to accept registration and insured covers and money orders. Villagers across the border at Alibeg were firearms.
September 13-14, 1947- Pakistan Army patrols pierced by the state territory and visited Alibeg and Jatli , 14 miles west of Bhimber.
September 16, 1947- Pakistan military personnel escorting postal treasury from Jhelum to Mirpur returned shouting inciting slogans.
September 17, 1947- A small state garrison company Patrol came in contact of fully armed band of 400 raiders from Pakistan, about 12 miles south-east of Ranbirshinghpura, inside the state. The raiders were driven away.
September 19, 1947- TheSialkot Sub- area Head-quarters approached the railway authorities in Pakistan to send under escort five railway wagons-three of Patrol, one of diesel oil and one of Kerosene oil - stranded at Sialkot to Jammu and Suchetgarh respectively. It was suggested that the state forces may be permitted to send a troop escort. There was no reply.
The special magistrate at Palandri informed the state govt. that the people from Pakistan were trying to cross the state border at various points.
September 22, 1947- Several raids in the Mawa area, six miles south-east of Samba.
Eight Pakistanis entered the state, opposite Chak sadaa village ten miles south-east of Samba at 7.30 in the evening to steal livestock and cattle. The Pakistanis were beaten back.
Another mob of 400 Pakistanis, collected together by beat of drum at about 11 in the night, mover towards Jhohar, 11 miles south-east of Samba shouting anti-state slogans. The village of Jhohar was set afire by the raiders.
September 28, 1947- A band of about 500 armed raiders, equipped with service rifles, automatic and spears, attacked a state patrol near Chak Harka, six miles south-east of Samba. Another band of 500 raiders were sighted near Rajpura, 8 miles south-east of Samba .
September 29, 1947- About 40 Pakistani raiders wearing uniforms and accompanied by two police constables entered the state at 10 in the morning at a point five miles south-west of Akhnur.
October 3, 1947- One hundered armed Pathans entered the Dhikote thana, 8 miles south-east of Kohala and after taking possession of arms and ammunition, set fire to the police station. Three hundred armed raiders crossed the river Jhelum opposite Salian 2 and half miles south west of Dhikote at 11.30 in the morning, and raided Dhikote again.
Raiders were also seen crossing river Jhelum at Baseen, 4 miles south of Kohala.
October 4, 1947- An aeroplane flew over the river Jhelum from Kohala to Palandari and back. The object of the flight was probably reconnaissance.
Increased activities of raiders in Chirala area. About 400 raiders armed with automatic weapons and bombs surrounded Chirala. Twenty Lorries, with headlights on, were seen coming from the direction of Muree on the Kohala -Murree road opposite Kappadar, 3 miles west of Chirala. A large number of raiders crossed the river Jhelum and approached Sesar at dawn. The state received private information from reliable sources that Ibrahim khan of Punch who had gone to Peshawar and had returned to Murree, Staying there at the Karachi Muslim Hotel, was trying to send arms and ammunition to Punch.
October 6, 1947- Raiders with all kind of modern weapons surrounded Thorar on all sides. A number of Lorries carrying Afridis arrived at Abbottabad. An aeroplane was reported to be making Bagh area.
The state forces, Chirala column encountered stiff opposition at Salian. A patrol of Kathua garrison contacted an armed gang of 100 dacoits who, facing the garrison fire broke up and fled. The piquet noticed 25 hostiles wearing olive-green uniforms and hiding in dugouts.
October 9, 1947- It was found that Pakistan army and police were posted all along the border on Jhelum side. Lorries were seen running to and fro, opposite Chechian all night. A point near Manawar was raided by about 17 armed men from Pakistan, wearing Police and Military uniforms, to lift Cattle. When the state troops opened fire they fled leaving behind the body of Tora Khan, Sub-Inspector of Police Tanda (Pakistan) and one revolver with six rounds.
October 10, 1947- A mob of 5 armed raiders headed by two sections of Pakistan army attacked Pansar, a village 6 miles south-east of Hiranagar (Jammu). Another armed mob of Pakistanis entered Nikkowal, 12 miles south-west of Akhnur and fired on villagers ploughing fields. When the state Patrol contracted them, the mob fired 30 rounds.
October 11, 1947- Pakistanis fired nine rounds from a point south of Nikkowal, 12miles south of Akhnur.
October 11-12, 1947- Five hundred raiders from Hazara crossed the river Jhelum near Salian and entered Punch Jagir on the night of October 11-12.
October 13, 1947- Pakistani troops attacked Babiya Platoon post, 12 miles south-east of Samba, opposite sukho chak, at 7.15 in the evening. Pakistanis attacked Rajpura, a village ten miles south-west of Samba, Nanga, Barro chak and Samdho chak, all along the border, about three miles south of Ramgarh.
October 14, 1947- Pakistanis, estimated at four to five thousand, wearing olive-green uniforms, occupied vantage positions along Tarala, 20 miles north-west of Kotli.
October 18, 1947- An organized band of Pakistanis, numbering about 5000 and supported by troops armed with light automatic and machine guns, infiltrated into the state territory and raided a group of villages - Alla, Pindi Charkan Kathar, Karial , Kothi- all about 12 miles south-east of Ranbirsinghpura. They killed children and old man, abducted women and set fire to the villages.
A Pakistani band fired on state patrol at Khrobal Mathirian, 12 miles south-west of samba.
Pakistanis supported by troops raided Rajpura and the surrounding areas.
October 20, 1947- Pakistani raiders set fire to villages of Bilaspur, Parhala, Chanor, Dhangote, Nikkowal on the night of October 20-21.
October 22, 1947- The commander of state forces at Domel reported that they were under heavy attack and that about 500 armed men were firing on them from the hills.
State garrison Patrols at Ramkot, Dub and Lahorgalli failed to contact the state army headquarters and no news was available from Kohala- Barsala.
A later report, clocked at 11 in the morning, said that 60 Lorries had crossed Lohargalli into the State.
Thus began the Full Scale Invasion of the State by the Pakistan on 22nd oct 1947 from Muzaffarabad.
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