|Er. Loveneesh Talwar|
Energy is the gift of nature to mankind in various forms. Energy is the need for all kinds of work done by human beings and nature. Energy is also defined as the ability or the capacity to do work. We use energy to do work and make all movements. When we eat, our body transforms the food into energy to do work. When we run or walk or do some work, we ‘burn’ energy in our bodies. Cars, planes, trolleys, boats, and machinery also transform energy into work. Work means moving or lifting something, warming or lighting something. There are many sources of energy that help to run the various machines invented by men. But as the population and development activities increases, the requirement of the energy (demand) will also increase. If this trend of continuous exploitation of energy sources, continue these sources are going to be exhausted very soon in near future. So we need to look for the alternative of conventional sources of energy and the best alternative of conventional energy sources are the non-conventional energy sources of Energy which are also called renewable sources of energy. The conventional sources of energy are coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc. which” are the kind of fossil fuel and non conventional or renewable sources of energy are in the form of Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Biomass, Ocean thermal, hydro and Tidal energy. Sun is the main source of all types of energy.
Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy, are sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes. For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy (bio-fuels grown sustainably), hydropower, etc. are some of the examples of renewable energy sources. A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight, wind, falling water, sea waves geothermal heat or biomass into a form, we can use such as heat or electricity. Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted and therefore they are called renewable.
However, most of the world’s energy sources are derived from conventional sources fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gases. These fuels are often termed non-renewable energy sources. Although, the available quantity of these fuels are extremely large, they are nevertheless finite and so will in principle ‘run out’ at some time in the future.
Renewable energy sources are essentially flows of energy, whereas the fossil and nuclear, fuels are in essence, stocks of energy. There are various forms of renewable energy like Solar energy, Wind energy, Bio energy, Hydro energy, Geothermal energy, Wave and tidal energy available now a days.
In 2019, about 40% of global final energy consumption came from renewable, with 26% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 4 % from hydroelectricity. New renewable (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels) accounted for another 10 % and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewable in electricity generation is around 20%, with 35 % of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewable. Wind power is growing at the rate of 30% annually, with a worldwide installed capacity of 158 gigawatts (GW) in 2009, and is widely used in Europe, Asia, and the United States. At the end of 2019, cumulative global photovoltaic (PV) installations surpassed 41 GW and PV power stations are popular in Germany and Spain. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of these is the 354 megawatt (MW) SEGS power plant in the Mojave Desert. The world’s largest geothermal power installation is The Geysers in California, with a rated capacity of 750 MW. Brazil has one of the largest renewable energy programs in the world, involving production of ethanol fuel from sugar cane, and ethanol now provides 18% of the country’s automotive fuel. Ethanol fuel is also widely available in the USA, the world’s largest producer in absolute terms, although not as a percentage of its total motor fuel use. While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. Globally, an estimated 3 million households get power from small solar PV systems. Micro-hydro systems configured into village-scale or county-scale mini-grids serve many areas. More than 30 million rural households get lighting and cooking from biogas made in household-scale digesters. Biomass cookstoves are used by 160 million households.
Climatic change concerns, coupled with high oil prices, peak oil, and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. The world energy scenario depicts a picture of concern. The adverse effects on environment caused by the production and consumption of energy have resulted in severe environmental impacts across the globe. The supply of energy is expected to remain adequate in coming years. However, imbalance of energy consumption is prevalent around the world. Energy consumption is high in most developed countries. On the other hand, the developing countries need to consume more energy to ensure economic growth. According to estimates, energy consumption in developing countries is only one-tenth of that in the developed countries. The economic development of many countries is hindered due to “energy poverty”.
The major sources of energy in the world are oil, coal, natural gas, hydro energy, nuclear energy, renewable combustible wastes and other energy sources. Combustible wastes include animal products, biomass and industrial wastes. The contribution of different energy sources to the total supply of energy in the world are: Oil 35.1%, Nuclear 6.8% , Coal 23.5% , Hydro 2.3%,Natural gas 20.7%,Other sources0.5% and renewable combustible wastes 11.1%.
Oil is the most important and abundant source of energy in the world. It is also the most highly consumed. However price of crude oil is very volatile and supply is driven by price.
Coal is the second most abundant source of energy in the world and is highly used in power generation. Coal ranks quite low in terms of consumption, however its consumption has increased in certain regions. A concern for many developing countries has been the low quality of coal. Natural gas has been the energy source with highest rates of growth in recent years. The high end-use efficiency of natural gas has made it a popular choice for power generation projects. Renewable sources of energy are gaining popularity. However fuel prices and regulatory policies of different countries play an important role in the development of renewals. In Asia there has been a projection of 3.7% growth in renewable energy sources over the ten year period from 2000 to 2010. Hydro electricity has been a major use of hydro sources of energy around the globe.
India is said to be one of the seven largest consumers of energy, but the growing gap between consumption and domestic output is a cause of concern. India’s share in global oil reserves is about 0.5 percent, whereas its share In global consumption is about 3 per cent. India is still dependent to the extent of 30 to 35 per cent on non-commercial fuel sources like cowdung, firewood, agricultural waste, etc. The growing energy needs of the emerging economics, specifically India, risks enhanced environmental damage from conventional carbon based sources of energy. The pressure on petrol is mounting and we have to concentrate on conservation of petroleum. Towards conservation of petroleum consumption, the government has to ration supplies of cooking gas, kerosene and petrol; improve power generation; focus on alternative source of energy such as solar, wind and
Energy Management bio-fuels; setup energy standards for all vehicles and a mass awareness for conservation. As the country’s petroleum bill grows, and future supplies look volatile or insecure, alternatives need to be explored. Ethanol is an environment-friendly oxidant additive to gasoline. There is a growing interest in biodiesel or ethanol blend. Energy majors are determined to tap biofuels. Special attention is being paid to jatropha cultivation. The corporate sector too is focusing on the biofuels sector. It is estimated that globally about one million hectares would cater to biofuels over the next four years, with an estimated 300,000 hectares contributing each year to biofuels in South East Asia, India and Southern African countries. India will itself produce 2 million tones of biodiesel by 2012.
Power and Energy sector is in a positive mood and is leaving no missed - opportunity to make hay of it, while the sun shines. India has setup a target of 20000 MW of installed capacity by 2022 for harnessing solar energy. It is leaving no stone unturned to become a solar hub in the world. With such earnest efforts, India’s mission to tap solar energy is not a pipe dream. Renewable Energy technologies like solar, biomass, hydro, etc. are deployed both in rural and urban areas to curb the growing gap between the demand and supply of power, which is due to increase in the per capita energy consumption and importantly, the much hyped climate change concerns. At 10464 MW, India presently ranks fifth in the world in wind power generations. The future of solar photovoltaic development in India seems to be very bright. India’s solar mission envisages the promotion of solar energy to harness and distribute environment-friendly power, available with high scalability, for sustainable economic growth by empowering national energy security.
Indian clean development mechanism projects broadly cover a range of sectors viz., power generation from renewable energy, particularly wind and hydro power, biomass applications, waste heat and energy recycling. Accelerated growth is expected in renewable energy sector, particularly wind energy sector, solar energy sector, bio fuels sector, etc. with favorable conditions in terms of potential, technical support facilities, policy framework and regulatory environment, robust manufacturing base, and investors confidence in the country. So in the subsequent parts of this chapter, the various Non-Conventional sources of energy such as Solar, Hydro, Wind, Geothermal, Ocean thermal, Tidal, MHD, Chemical energy sources and Thermoelectric power sources are discussed in detail.